The vast majority of the world’s 7 billion people practice some kind of religion, ranging from massive worldwide churches to obscure spiritual traditions and local sects. Nobody really knows how many religions there are on the planet, but whatever the number, there are at least that many theories about why we have religion at all. One idea is that, as humans evolved from small hunter-gatherer tribes into large agrarian cultures, our ancestors needed to encourage cooperation and tolerance among relative strangers. Religion then—along with the belief in a moralizing God—was a cultural adaptation to these challenges.
But that’s just one idea. There are many others—or make up your own. But they are all just theories. None has been empirically tested. A team of psychological scientists at Queen’s University, Ontario, is now offering a novel idea about the origin of religion, and what’s more they’re delivering some preliminary scientific evidence to support their reasoning. Researcher Kevin Rounding and his colleagues are arguing that the primary purpose of religious belief is to enhance the basic cognitive process of self-control, which in turn promotes any number of valuable social behaviors.
They tested this theory in four fairly simple experiments, using classic measures of self-control. In the first study, for example, they used a word game to prime some volunteers’ (but not others’) subconscious thoughts of religion. Then they asked all the volunteers (using a ruse) to drink an unsavory mix of OJ and vinegar, one ounce at a time. They were told they could stop any time, and to take as much time as they liked, and that they would be paid a small amount for each ounce of the brew that they drank.
The amount they drank was a proxy for self-discipline. The more OJ and vinegar they forced down, they greater their self-control. And as predicted, those with religion on their mind endured longer at the unpleasant task. Since society and religion ask us to tolerate many things we don’t particularly like for the common good, the scientists interpret this finding as evidence of a particular kind of self-control.
Another way to think of self-control, perhaps the most familiar, is delayed gratification—resisting immediate temptation to wait for a greater reward later on. In another experiment, the scientists again primed some of the volunteers with hidden religious words, but in this case they were told (falsely) that the experiment was concluded and that they would be paid. They were told, further, that they could either return the next day and be paid $5, or come back in a week and get $6. This is a widely used laboratory paradigm for measuring the exertion of discipline in the face of temptation, and indeed, almost twice as many of those with religion opted for more money later.
Self-control is costly, consuming a lot of mental resources. Recent research has demonstrated that our cognitive power—in the form of glucose, the brain’s fuel—is limited. The mind and brain can become fatigued, just like a muscle, and when depleted, normal self-control is impaired. The third experiment built on an understanding of this process, often called “ego depletion.” The scientists wanted to see if cognitively depleted people are “refueled” with reminders of religion, so they had only half of the volunteers perform a mentally draining task while listening to loud music. Then they primed half of these depleted volunteers, and half the controls, with religious words.
So at this point, there were four groups: Depleted; depleted but religiously primed; undepleted controls; and religiously primed controls. All of these volunteers then attempted a set of geometrical puzzles, which, unknown to them, were impossible to solve. The impossible task was included to test their persistence against great difficulty—another measure of self-control.
The results were unambiguous. Among those who were mentally depleted, the ones with religion on their minds persisted longer at the impossible task—suggesting that the religious priming restored their cognitive powers—and their patience in the process. They performed basically the same as those who were never tired out in the first place. The scientists take this as strong evidence for the replenishing effect of religion on self-discipline.
The fourth and final experiment was the only one with ambiguous results. The first three studies had shown direct causal evidence of religion on self-control—and downstream effects on enduring discomfort, delaying rewards, and exerting patience. But is it possible that the religious priming might have activated something else—moral intuition, or death-related concerns? In order to rule out these possibilities, the scientists used a completely secular self-control task, one with no moral overlay: the so-called Stroop task. This is the task where one must rapidly identify the ink that words are printed in, rather than read the words. It’s very difficult, requiring mental exertion and self-control.
The scientists primed some with religious words as usual, but others were primed with moral words—virtue, righteous—and still others with words related to mortality—deadly, grave, and so forth. Then all the volunteers attempted the Stroop task on a computer, which measured accuracy and reaction time. The results, as reported in a forthcoming issue of the journal Psychological Science, showed that religiously primed volunteers had much more self-control than did controls or those primed to think about mortality. But those with religion on their minds were statistically no different than those with morality on their minds. This was an unexpected finding, and it suggests that activating an implicit moral sensibility may have some of the same effects as religion.
It’s not entirely clear what cognitive mechanism is at work in religion’s influence on self-control. One possibility is that religion makes people mindful of an ever watchful God, and thus encourages more self-monitoring. Or religious priming may activate concerns of supernatural punishment. A more secular explanation is that religious priming makes people more concerned about their reputation in the community, leading to more careful self-monitoring. Notably, almost a third of the volunteers in these studies were self-defined atheists or agnostics, suggesting that these robust effects have little or nothing to do with the suggestibility of the most devout.
Wray Herbert’s book, On Second Thought, was recently published in paperback. Excerpts from his two blogs—“We’re Only Human” and “Full Frontal Psychology”—appear regularly in Scientific American and in The Huffington Post.
MIKE December 19, 2011
Very interesting piece! Religion is always a topic to draw attention and the approach they are taking at Queen’s is quite different view point. I am intrigued. My only question about the experiment is how can they prove that self control is the purpose for creating religion and not just a bi-product? I do indeed think it is plausible when I think of those who are peaceful, calm and conscious of others, but I also see religion being used to control which could be another possible reason for its creation (among others).
TOM LASSEK November 24, 2012
I disagree with the authors statement “The Primary purpose of religious belief is to enhance the basic cognitive process of self-control”.
Varied levels of self-control within each Religious Preference is determined by a host of institutional variables, It’s Dogma, Receptive parishioners, Faithful who meticulously follow it’s teaching, along with an arguable host of lesser known rationale. Self-Control is a result, a carryover from the discipline, a “muscle memory” in such an environment, Repetition being the Mother of all learning as it were.
Everything on, in, or above this world has a lifespan, everything. Humans fall into this multitude of millions, and we are the only product that can think, and we can think freely. Not one of us honestly know what will happen when our life span is over, and by far, the concept of death exploding into nothingness is incomprehensible – and it’s Frightening. We have neither the advanced thinking necessary to move forward nor the empirical knowledge to prove anything beyond this point.
So, it’s no coincidence that we can “think” our way towards an answer, to continue a “Presence”, a spiritual “continuance” so as to speak, at a level similar to our past material life, or move further upward towards something better – – – and here religion fills the crucial void. To my knowledge, there is no known Religious Preference that doesn’t support an afterlife in one form or the other, and by default, draws into it’s fold those who believe, or want to believe.
And so, the World Turns, for all of us, at least at the moment.
JOHN MOOK March 14, 2014
I know this an old thread, but it caught my attention. I completely agree with your comment Tom. A simpler way of stating it might be: “Religion is a response to fear of the unknown”.
STAN ZIELINSKI August 12, 2014
Religion is a “For Profit” business. Early promoters discovered the profitability, and the respect, that theology demanded. This was the “job” that they could do, without having to produce. Any beliefs that required explanation was easily taken care of with the old standby: “you must have FAITH”. If you don’t think it’s profitable, take a look at the Vatican, or any of the many cathedrals built by the supporters of Catholicism.
SAFIN GULI August 30, 2015
1.- God just exists – forever, for no reason.
2.- God decides to create stuff after existing literally forever.
3.- God touches off the Big Bang, does nothing for 10 billion years.
4.- God creates Earth; again does nothing for 4 billion years.
5.- God creates dinosaurs…
6.- God kills dinosaurs.
7.- God creates mankind, in “his image”.
8.- God meddles wildly in the affairs of humans in a small part of the entire Earth for about 1500 years, including giving one tribal society rules to live by and helping them to defeat their enemies.
9.- God later comes back to earth in human form to preach for 33 years before dying a bloody death meant to serve as atonement for the flaws inherent in all humans (which he created).
10.- God ceases all manifestation and direct contact with humanity for the next 2000 years, leaving us with only an arbitrarily cobbled-together collection of metaphorical and contradictory revelations as our instructions for achieving eternal bliss.
JESS HENEBERY June 11, 2018
hahaha spot on. This is exactly how I feel about god too. It’s just some made up story to satisfy humans.
ALEX September 2, 2015
Safin Guli here’s the problem with your list for Christianity, you’re combining the secular beliefs of the world with the ideas of Christianity, therefore completely changing the timeline of what Christians believe. You should try researching the difference between creationist belief and evolutionist belief before criticizing either one of them.
LITA October 1, 2015
I was brought up as Church of England. At Sunday School (before I was confirmed) we learnt about Jesus ‘gentle Jesus meek and mild, look upon a little child, pity my simplicity, suffer me to come to Thee.’ I liked Jesus. He was nice and kind. He loved me. Then I was confirmed and was confronted by God. He frightened me; he was portrayed as this vengeful old man. I learnt about hell, sulphur, brimstone – with the prospect of being dropped into eternal flame if I was naughty. It felt like a betrayal. For years, I was scared to be alive and terrified of dying.
I just turned 69 years old and I’m no nearer understanding the necessity of religion, except as a tool to control others’ behaviour and to use fear – amongst other things – to exert this control.
I have ‘tried on’ various religions and philosophies throughout my life and have joined none of them. However, I have learnt that groups of people are drawn to each other and within these groups one can find kindred spirits with whom one can share support, kindness, theories, philosophies, and somehow one emerges from a time spent among these ‘spiritual’ friends feeling comforted by their wisdom and simplicity. Such groups of people, I believe, are important in our lives.
We inhabit this minuscule planet that is hurtling towards the Great Attractor, with no idea why we are here or if there is anything beyond the here and now. I think our species needs the idea that something knows what is going on.
We have some scary dudes in our midst who act out murderous behaviours in the name of their idea of a God, and with the full-throated support and encouragement of their religious leaders. Behaviours such as these are just that: behaviours. Human behaviours. Some humans are drawn to violence and dominance. They find kindred spirits and they form groups; give their groups a name; create a God in their own image. This seems to lead to the idea that they are no longer responsible for what they do. Religion is thus used to satisfy the need to be violent. If people don’t agree with their belief system, they see it as their right to imprison, torture, maim and kill.Not unlike a facet of the scary God I was taught about as an impressionable child.
Maybe there should be another study: one that looks at what might happen if all religions were phased out.
Life is chaos. We would still form groups of like-minded people. There would still be those who want to maim and kill. There would still be people who are gentle and kind.
I’m still drawn to the idea that Jesus was happy for me to sit near him when I was a child in Sunday School. But now I know it is because being close to someone who loves me, is one of the best things about being alive. It brings out the best in me.
KIM TYLER April 25, 2018
nice one Lita. we ve been travelling in the same boat !
HAYWARD June 9, 2018
I know this is a very old thread, but thank you Lita for your insight! I agree with most of what you said, everything from loving being loved by Jesus to being afraid of God as a child. It makes me wonder if it was created to handle both of those who respond to negative and positive reinforcement. I still believe in a higher power, because I am not capable of letting it go. However, logically- I believe that religion was and is ultimately a way to control the masses.
TYLER DALE June 21, 2018
My thoughts: Groups may have thought up rules, a group/tribe needs to survive etc. Rules are enforced by the agreed leaders. “out of fear, leadership or whatever”. If an obvious explanation for the rule can not be explained and, because, “I said so” is not enough, then a higher entity is created. Many rules are for control, power etc. The only proof was the stake, stones, banishment or shunning.
ALAN SAMPSON November 15, 2015
Educate yourself and stop being educated
FRAN GOLDHILL January 9, 2017
THANKS FOR YOUR CLARITY OF THOUGHT, YOUR OHNEST CONCLUSION THAT YOU WERTE INDOCRINATED AT THE MOST IMPRSSIONABLE TIME IN YOUE LIFE. IT YOUR INTELLIGECE THAT LED YOU TO WORK OUT FOR YOURSELF THE REALITY.
MY VIEW IS THAT THIS PLANET AS A LIVING OGANISM GREATES THE LIFE FORMS THAT EXIST ON IT THROUGH AN EVERLUTIONARY PROCESS. ALL HAVE SURVIVAL INSTINCTS.
HUMANS HAVE THE ADDITION OF HIGHLY DEVELOPED COGNITION, IMAGINATION POWERFUL ENOUGH TO TURN IMAGINED CREATIONS INTO PHYSICAL STRUCTURES.
ALTHOUGH THERE ARE MANY VARIATIONS IN INTELLECT AND PHISICAL ABILITY AND ARE ALL BORN EQUAL MANY ARE PREVENTED FROM SHARING IN THE ABUNDANCE THAT THE PLANET PROVIDES.
HUMANS HAVE A LOT TO LEARN ABOUT HOW TO PROTECT THE FUTURE OF THEIR OWN PECIES.
DAVID JOHN CHAMBERLAIN December 16, 2015
Actually all sentient beings have a religion. Maybe plants too, but let us keep it simple!
Religion is an extension of a moral code; maybe science will discover the gene responsible. An example is the drone bee, holding tight with his little feet to the entrance to the hive, while his wings fan cooling wind inside. It does this for the greater benefit of the colony, not for personal gain, and it is done because of the “god” gene. Parents (of all species) have an overwhelming urge to look after offspring, again because it is an inbuilt desire. There are countless examples of sentient beings acting not for self interest, but for the greater good and in some cases the survival of the species.
A brief look at the history of religion will show how this moral code, starting with basic “do not kill your fellow man” type advice, has evolved into a complicated code of ethics. It will also show how God has emerged “in the image of man” (not the other way around) to fill our desire for imortality.
The world does need religion, as each family group is usually too small to provide the guidance needed to instill children with a sound moral code. This is especially true when grandparents are no longer part of the communities. However “faiths” which claim to know what God wants are destroying the concept of religion. An omoeba has a far more knowledge of how to land an F16 jet plane on the pitching deck of an aircraft carrier in a force 10 gale, than we can ever have of God.
SHARON NICHOLS October 18, 2017
David, your comment that all sentient beings have religion is hogwash. There is no evidence to support this statement. Religion is a human construct for humans. Various religions compete for the ‘scarce resource’ of adherents to their faith. At present the fastest growing ‘religion’ is ‘None’. Aside from that, I’ll just comment on the alleged growth of the Mormon faith. Much of it is accounted for by post-death conversion of dead people (no matter their religion in life) to Mormonism–which is an insanity glommed on top of an insanity (the faith came out of a con man with a hat!). ‘Nones’ or atheists account for the fastest growing group globally. In the U.S. ‘Nones’ are at 84 million & counting.
KIM TYLER April 25, 2018
interesting read David. Not quite sure what your analogy involving an amoeba was meant to show ? Can you clarify that for me a little ? Tia.
J.D. January 4, 2016
Had Catholicism beaten into me as a child. Not sure I have gotten over that – totally. But, I have spent many years studying religions and they are all basically the same. If one can consider other life / intelligence then all religions must be false / nonsense. It’s just the shaman who needs your money / influence.
Just a heathen……!
PHILIP SHAW January 17, 2016
To me it seems that religion is a classic confidence trick. It promises the most wonderful and desirable reward that is impossible to to achieve without making large sacrifices of treasure and time. The prize is so desirable that critical thought is suspended. To further deter critical thought, cruel penalties are periodically inflicted on critics by the believers who claim to be carrying out the demands of the deity, thus demonstrating the that the deity does not exist. So the religion industry grinds on and on. It’s as amazing as when uncle spends the family wealth on a non existent bridge. The commands in Numbers 30 and 31, when entering the broken city to kill all the men, boys and male babies and women that have been with a man but the young virgin women you may keep for yourselves, clearly illustrates the tribal nature of Abrahmic religions as do the laws on homosexuality and marrying outside the tribe.
DENNIS February 26, 2017
I believe religion became a creation of man in the early stages of evolving from just another forest animal to a thinking human being. With the growth of deeper emotion which also includes concern ,surely man would have started wondering why where and how. With these mixed emotions going without something solid or evident to answer the questions man then formed ideas to compensate. Even though I’m not religious from a scientific view I’m pretty certain we would not evolved to the point that mankind is today without it. Even though the basis of religion is simple minded ideas it does have its attributes that I see as imperative to evolution itself.
DENNIS February 26, 2017
Confidence has to be the # 1 religious attribute on my list. Until man could create some sort of reason to exist there would nothing more than disillusion. There was no inspiration to excel , there would be nothing to enjoy. It would be the everyday survival of the species. Ideas of a creator gave the ability to accomplish, and the hope and faith to pursue. Religion from those very ideas has become what it is today.
KIM TYLER April 25, 2018
excellent. Very succinct
PHILIP SHAW January 17, 2016
To Safin Guli, You did not mention that Jesus is going to come back and kill all the goats so the meek and mild is backed up by terror. Ref: last book in the Holy Bible. I enjoyed your summary of eternity although the bible starts some thousand years BC.
TS February 14, 2016
Lita’s answer is interesting. My view: religion has failed. The secular (moralistic) ideologies which came from them have also not been able to hold their promises (includeing the Comunists who tried replaceing traditional religion with their version of state/economy. Note China and Cuba Vietnam are even abandoning slowly tight state control not just the worship of dictators).
I consider myself scientific, and atheistic so I feel religion must be a symptom of something, some say fear. Perhaps prolonged psychological fear as opposed to the fear of basic animals. Who knows. If religion and astrology were to disappear the structures and general mindsets wouldn’t change for a long time. My dad left the church and slums in old US South, but until he got a decent job he was flawed as anyone had a crazy temper etc. Now the relationship’s good. Other people of his former circle (ironically another one who left their church and working town home) I don’t speak much with now, too judgemental of other people. When I was a child I was treated with more respect by older religious people (grandmother and baby sitter) who were more educated. I’m behind in my own education and experience with work but I can sit and comment on this right now and be very healthy and disabled. I’m not even the most optimistic person either. Whatever we believe or don’t we’re ourselves and human. One has to accept human failings even the cruel side of people but one can’t give too much importance to it. Note to 29 year old self: yes fight for the freebees but give some away yourself.
TS February 14, 2016
Also not suprising that they borrow philosophies and ways of life from the founders or from the environment around them to make themselves respectable. My mom and lots of older follow cults (jd, they were all young once) especially where if they don’t promise an afterlife they combine eastern philosophy with modern humanistic psychology, just like the pre- (counsel of Nicia) Christians borrowed Greek philosophy and added on to the various sects their triditional Hebrew religion and later during Romanization borrowed Pagan practices. Lots of talented minds are wasted on it. Even psychology lost the humanistic and behavioral sides with personality tests and “find the right therapist” thinking, the Stroop test is less well-known than MBTI. Brain science today is still primitive. Cults always say their not religions even with huge churches and philosophies and stuff, just because they don’t have lots of ceremonial practice yet.
ARRYELLE WIESEN February 23, 2016
I think religions are just big groups who believe in the same gods they also start arguments often and yes i am an atheist
TIMOTHY March 14, 2016
Religion and politics are the same. Meaning that it takes participants in either to appreciate. Now the question to the participants is, are you going to take from others to profit or share. All can profit and learn if we share the good things in life and dispel the bad things in life. Hard to get a consensus on this, yet easy if we all do it. God ain’t letting us know all the answers that is why have to keep searching and learning. Yes, I believe in GOD just might not be yours.
XAVIER April 26, 2016
I think people created religion to express their ideas about the world and create a group of people to also believe in their idea, too. It creates a social aspect of common interests, like if someone wants to find out how we were created, someone else may feel the same too. Or, it could be about gaining followers to boost one’s power. This is my therory.
METRO May 27, 2016
I completely disagree with the two theories about origin of religion, that it was ‘invented’
1- by our ancestors to encourage cooperation and tolerance among relative, or strangers.
2- or it developed to “enhance the basic cognitive process of self-control”.(automatically like the atoms of carbon nitrogen oxygen phosphorus sulpher accidentally arranged themselves into DNA & living beings! Wow !!))
I think that there can be no completely acceptable & logical, scientific explanation of religion or belief in ‘god’ or a kind of ‘super being’& scientists have completely & utterly failed to explain why this universe came into being’ what they like to call ‘the uncaused cause or how life originated & ‘developed’ as many still believe.
But i agree with what ‘Robert Jastrow when he wrote in ‘God and the Astronomers’
“For the scientist who has lived by faith in the power of reason, the story ends like a bad dream. He has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries”.
JEFF B June 17, 2016
It all went south when this monkey told that monkey that “HE, pointing upward to the sky, said for you to give me your share.”
ANNE PEIRIS December 29, 2016
The most of the comments made above are based on Christianity. I also used to be a born christian. And I married to a Buddhist man since we are from Asia. I started to find more about Buddhism, Christianity and other main religions in the world like Islam and Hinduism. One thing I realized was, people are trying to survive all of their life time. By doing so, they need to have a source to face the uncertainty of their day today activities and also uncertainty of the life and uncertainty of the life after death. Accordingly religion is a by product of fear. (That is why where there are better economic and health conditions, eople tend to be less religious) More over, as almost everyone mentioned, above, to have self control and not to harm others or to your own self.(Coz humans are animals and they have the genes of apes). So basically, no one needs religions if they are mature enough to understand what the purpose of the life.
STAN LOBO March 6, 2017
Just this morning as a woke up i had this thought that man created religion in his own image to have something to depend on as no one around is dependable !!! So the quest of man to have something he can trust he began trusting that which does not physically exist or respond !!! Does man need a symbolism to catch – on , exist , survive ? Early story of the bible also shows how the followers of Moses created their own idols when he had gone to bring the code of conduct !!! Even Moses created a religion with the ten commandments to keep the people quiet , well behaved and put some fear into them !!!
PHILIPP NYSTRAND March 21, 2017
Two words explain why humans are religious and believe in after lifwe: comfort and hope.
Comfort to ease grief and pain, and hope to continue fighting and to always advance.
ROGER SHARP August 7, 2017
Philip, I think that’s a superb way to put it. The religions we have created may have led in a direction that isn’t always useful, but that’s a different issue.
Maybe we are just bright enough to wonder “Why?”. but not clever enough to accept the answer?
ADAM BEASLEY May 31, 2017
I read everything everyone wrote…and was hoping someone would bring up Spiritualism as opposed to religion. I’ve always felt Spiritual, but NOT religious. I don’t disect my spiritualism….rather I let it “Be”.
Perhaps one of you have a better handle on my synapses.
VITZSeptember 9, 2018
First part of Jesus Sermon on the Mount. Matt.5: Happy are those Conscious of their spiritual need”. Study the Bible with those who let the Bible interpret the Bible without relying on doctrines of men. JW.or
PINDOLIA BABU February 10, 2018
Religion =Re …. ie.again.
Legion. ie.Unite (Latin word)
In grammatical terms, religion is only a process and not,Isms. Created by humans in their own image. philosophically,it is a process to re unite individual conscious with universal conscious. call it GOD. It is a science(spiritual)of unique journey to explore nature of SOUL energy.(enlightenment)A phenomenon very difficult to express in words but to experience within.
MAN KNOW THY SELF.
RON MARCH March 4, 2018
I found the comments interesting & insightful into the thoughts of people.What I find intrigueing is that no one seems to have defined what religion is :What is the essence of religion ?,What are the criteria for something being religious or a religion ? There is repetition in these questions but I want to clarify what we are talking about when we use the word religion
RONNIE PICKERINY April 23, 2018
I really like your piece thank you very much for sharing your knowledge with us and presenting it in a manor which makes everybody who reads it pleasingly happy.
KIM TYLER April 25, 2018
Maybe we can divide ourselves into those who seek the answer to the eternal questions. Why are we here and where do we go when we die ? and those who don’t seen to give a s**t….Im in the former group. If im honest im scared of the Idea of dying. But also intrigued to an extent. We are born into this strange and beautiful world with out seemingly much choice in the matter. And will leave it hopefully a little bit wiser ?
VALK RYE April 30, 2018
I think the Religion before was used by the Kings and Queens to sustain order and power. They manufactured the Bible for the ancient people to obey them and fear them until such time it became a tradition.
MOHAMAD SAEID HOSEYN ZADE June 15, 2018
I hate religion
DAVID OLUMUTIMI August 20, 2018
Now having read all this it leaves me in a limbo as to what to believe.
Cus basically you guys are saying all i ever learnt as a kid was all a lie…cmon